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Dear colleagues,
 
The 16th international Conference of the Society on Cachexia, Sarcopenia & Muscle Wasting, will take place on 17-19 June 2023 in Stockholm, Sweden, under the guidance of Chairs of the SCWD, Professor Stefan Anker (Berlin, Germany) and Professor Gianluigi Savarese (Stockholm, Sweden).
 
To make sure the international community around the world keeps abreast with the latest advancements after the challenging COVID 19 pandemic and the recent events in Eastern Europe, the Board of the SCWD is determined to create the best possible
conditions for the cachexia and sarcopenia community to meet in person.
SCWD will also make sure highlights of the conference are accessible with virtual options to attend remotely via our digital interactive platform.
 
We hope to see you in Stockholm and look forward to working with you again to continue the tradition of a mutually rewarding and intellectually stimulating SCWD conference!
 
Best regards,
Prof. Stefan Anker (President, SCWD) and Gianluigi Savarese

From the literature

Latest treatments for cancer cachexia: a review

Currently, there are many interventions and treatments for cancer cachexia. Early nutritional intervention and care are essential to ensure that sufficient nutritional requirements are met for the patients. This includes oral nutrition where possible, as well as nutrition and exercise therapy. Furthermore, preventive care to minimise loss of skeletal muscle mass is vital. Pharmacological options are also available. These include many options, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-cytokine therapy and eicosapentaenoic acid. Furthermore, steroids are often used for cachexia. However, they have limited effects are limited, so recently, anamorelin hydrochloride, a ligand with a similar action to that of ghrelin, was developed. It is used to treat weight loss by increasing appetite and has been approved for use in cachexia. Anamorelin hydrochloride holds great promise to function as an effective therapeutic drug for cancer cachexia.
This review by Watanabe H & Oshima T aimed to review the current treatments of cancer cachexia, as well as anamorelin hydrochloride, a new and promising treatment.

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Body composition in colorectal cancer: a review

Personalised therapy is a challenge in advanced colorectal cancer care. Much research has been carried out on prognostic and predictive markers of this disease, and a strong correlation was found between sarcopenia and survival in such patients. Currently, selecting personalised strategies for patients is based on very few parameters, not making sufficient use of all available clinical information. Therefore, this paper suggests that it is possible to use body composition and liver tumour burden through automated extraction from CT images. Such automated segmentation would allow one to extract prognostic parameters from the routine imaging data which is collected from patients. This could provide personalised survival modelling for colorectal cancer patients. Specifically, the inclusion of body composition as a factor holds great promise in improving current strategy making for patient care.
This review by Keyl J et al. aimed to explore automated assessment of body composition and liver metastases from CT images can improve personalised risk assessment.

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Are immunosenescence and mitochondrial dysfunction hallmarks of frailty?

The development of frailty has been attributed to a number of biological mechanisms, including immunosenescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. Impairments in immune cell mitochondria have been proposed to both cause and interact with immunosenescence, hypothetically leading to ageing-related increases in sterile inflammation, commonly known as ‘inflammaging’. However, despite the convincing evidence supporting these suggestions, claims regarding the effects of immunosenescence on clinical outcomes such as frailty have recently been challenged.

The aim of this article was to examine the association between immunosenescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, and frailty syndrome in community-dwelling frail and non-frail older adults.

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GDF15 and muscle function in cancer cachexia: a review

In this study, TOV21G cancer cachexia mouse models were used to demonstrate impaired muscle function and performance which is seen in cachexia patients. With growth differentiation factor 15, GDF15, neutralization, the mice were seen to exhibit restored muscle function and performance. GDF15 is a stress-responsive cytokine which is secreted by many cells, including tumour cells and damaged cells. GDF15 functions by activating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF, receptor GFRAL. This is expressed in the hindbrain and leads to reducing food intake and weight loss. This is relevant to cachexia patients, and patients with chronic diseases such as heart failure, as their GDF15 levels are significantly higher than that of healthy people. In this study, the mice were treated with mAB2, an anti-GDF15 antibody. They demonstrated weight gain in terms of fat mass and lean mass, improved muscle function and physical performance. Hence, it is thought that GDF15-related therapy may be effective for patients with cachexia. However, symptoms of cachexia such as fatigue do not appear to be related to GDF15 levels, so further exploration is necessary.
This review by Kim-Muller JY et al. aimed to explore how GDF15 levels are related to weight loss and highlight how GDF15 neutralization could be an option for treating cachexia.

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