Clinical Frailty Scale and Frailty Index in Predicting Long-Term Survival for the Critically Ill: a review

Frailty is a state of vulnerability, recognised clinically, where patients experience an ageing-associated decline in their physical and cognitive abilities. There are two main scales for measuring frailty. The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is often used for intensive care unit patients. The Diseases-10 Modified Frailty Index (mFI) is also used; it is derived from the understanding of 11 comorbidities. However, it was unknown how the two compare. In this study of 7,001 patients, it was found that a greater proportion of patients were categorised as frail using the CFS, and this scale also predicted better those who would survive past the 6-month mark versus those who would die. This indicates that the two scales are not equivalent, and the mFI should not be used for frailty.
This review by A. Subramaniam et al. aimed to highlight the differences between the two scales, the Clinical Frailty Scale and the Diseases-10 Modified Frailty Index, to determine which is a better predictor of frailty.

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Cancer cachexia and upper gastrointestinal cancers: a review

Globally, there are over 1.5 million new cases of gastric and oesophageal cancer annually. These cases (especially advanced cases) are often associated with cancer cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome that leads to progressive wasting which cannot be fully reverse through nutritional interventions. It is also responsible for around 20% of cancer deaths. Yet, the understanding of cancer cachexia is often neglected in treatment. This presents an issue as cytotoxic drug doses are most commonly calculated based on body surface area, not taking into account decreasing mass.
Furthermore, understanding cancer cachexia would allow for the improvement of therapeutic options, which are currently little researched, including exercise- and nutrition-based interventions, as well as targeted treatments such as anti-IL1 α and anti-GDF-15. Even for patients with incurable cancers, the management of cachexia wasting can improve quality of life.
This review by Brown LR et al. aimed to highlight the necessity of understanding the progression of cancer cachexia in association with diseases such as gastric and oesophageal cancer, as well as the possible future research directions associated with aiding in these conditions.

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Cancer cachexia and exercise-based therapy: a review

Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that leads to progressive wasting which cannot be fully reverse through nutritional interventions. There is currently no clear method for the management of cachexia, but exercise seems to hold promising potential. Exercise may provide anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, which may prove important in aiding with cachexia due to its correlation with inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, exercise improves muscle strength and function, which can improve quality of life for those with cancer cachexia. However, there is very scarce evidence for this, and even some evidence contradicting the benefit of exercise due to the risk of over-extending the patients.
This review by Murphy BT et al. aimed to shine light on both sides of the complex discussion surrounding the benefits of exercise in aiding with cancer cachexia.

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