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Prevalence and prognosis of cachexia according to the Asian Working Group for Cachexia criteria in sarcopenic dysphagia: A retrospective cohort study.

The aim is to examine the prevalence and prognosis of cachexia according to the Asian Working Group for Cachexia (AWGC) criteria in patients with sarcopenic dysphagia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 271 patients diagnosed with sarcopenic dysphagia out of 467 patients enrolled in the Japanese sarcopenic dysphagia database.

Cachexia was diagnosed by the AWGC criteria. The AWGC criteria includes chronic diseases, either or both weight loss (2% or more over 3-6 mo) or low BMI (<21 kg/m), and at least one of the following: anorexia, decreased grip strength (<28 kg in men and <18 kg in women), or elevated C-reactive protein levels (>0.5 mg/dL).

Outcomes were death, swallowing function as assessed by the Food Intake LEVEL Scale (FILS), and activities of daily living as assessed by the Barthel Index (BI) at follow-up. The mean age was 84 (±8) y; 152 (56%) were female, and 97 (36%) had cachexia.

In univariate analysis, death was significantly more common in the cachexia group (15% versus 2%, P ≤ 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that cachexia was independently associated with death (odds ratio: 3.557, 95% confidence interval: 1.010, 12.529).

No significant differences were found in the presence or absence of cachexia in the FILS (7 versus 8, P = 0.849) and BI (55 versus 52.5, P = 0.892). Cachexia was found in 36% of patients with sarcopenic dysphagia, and death was significantly higher in cachexia.

Hidetaka Wakabayashi


Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital



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Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Esophageal Diseases
Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
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